Transport policies of the European Union
by Paul K Lyons

ISBN 0 9524253 3 5 - Published January 2000 - 250 A4 pages, 16 chapters,

DOCUMENT LISTINGS (around 700) - pdf


This important book describes and explains, in a way never attempted before, the successes and failures of the European Union's policies affecting the transport sector (through to December 1999).

The Transport Commissioner Loyola de Palacio outlined her priorities for five years as: the single market, safety and environment, infrastructure development, intermodality and international relations. 'Transport policies of the European Union' uses these same five areas as its framework for setting out, in a comprehensive and comprehensible way (something which cannot always be said of the Commission's papers), all of the significant transport and transport-related developments at the EU level.

The inter-play between the EU's institutions, and the individual positions of the Member States are fully explained, where relevant, in describing the genesis of each policy or law. Moreover, the book also provides clear indications, where they exist, on the legislative priorities for the future.

Six chapters are devoted to the functioning of the internal market, reflecting the importance of Community legislation and competition actions in this area. The first of these starts with an overview of single market policy and de Palacio's priorities for completing the internal transport markets, and gives a broad overview of various horizontal policies, such as those on competition, taxation, customs and procurement. The five subsequent chapters are devoted to the aviation, maritime, railway, road and inland waterway markets (each one following a roughly similar pattern, covering liberalisation laws, complementary actions, and a detailed look at state aid and antitrust cases).

The next four chapters examine safety and environment policies. The first of these takes a broad look at the links between transport and safety and environment policies, and examines some of the big political issues - working time, climate change and acidification - which are having, and will continue to have, an important knock-down effect on transport policies. The three subsequent chapters look at safety and environment issues in each of the three main sectors: aviation, maritime and inland transport.

Three further chapters look at cohesion (covering trans-European networks and regional policy), intermodality (both for freight and passenger networks), and research and demonstation. The final two chapters look at international topics: enlargement; and the EU's relations with the New Independent States, the Mediterranean countries, EFTA and the US.

'Transport policies of the European Union' can be FREELY downloaded chapter by chapter using the links below. This book originally cost £425. The author would be grateful for an email acknowleding any use of the book, whether for personal or business reasons    Lyons at p i k l e dot c o dot u k

Any use of the information in this book must be fully acknowledged and referenced. Copyright law applies.

Contents - Download

Chapter One - Download

Chapter Two - Download
Single Market - General


The general approach to single market policy

Loyola de Palacio's first statement on the internal transport market

The catalogue of rules to control state aid

The 1969 Regulation on public service obligations
The 1970 Regulation on aid for coordination of transport
Instruments for application of antitrust policy
The long-serving 1968 inland transport Regulation
Modernisation and decentralisation of competition law

The tricky process of harmonising taxation

Attempts to control the large number of excise tax derogations
The radical energy tax restructuring proposal

The extended struggle to abolish duty free sales

VAT arrangements for passenger transport

Border checks, customs and administrative formalities

The vulnerability of the Community's common transit system
Dismantling border controls through the Schengen initiative

Obstacles to the free movement of goods, and a solution

Rules for fair procurement practices in the transport sector

Community efforts to open third country markets

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Chapter Three - Download
Single Market - Aviation


The three air liberalisation packages

The third package to complete the internal aviation market
Report describes progressive, not dramatic, liberalisation
From single market to worldwide challenges

The Groundhandling Directive for airport liberalisation

Actions to complement the internal aviation market

The Commission's efforts to develop a policy on slots
The Council's difficulties over airport charges
Fair use of computer reservation systems
Compensation for passengers denied boarding
Updating the Warsaw System rules on airline liability

The drawn out end to state aid for flag carriers

The Commission's state aid decisions in the early 1990s
The 1994 guidelines on state aid for airlines
The market investor principle versus state aid
The Commission's Air France Decision and its Court challenge

Controlling monopoly action and abuses of dominant positions

Tussles with IATA over block exemption rules
Policing airline mergers and cooperation alliances
Regulatory difficulties over transatlantic alliances
Brussels spurred into action by BA-AA proposal
Stringent conditions imposed on BA and Lufthansa alliances
Controlling anticompetitive behaviour at airports
Unlawful groundhandling practices at Athens, Frankfurt and Paris airports
Discriminatory airport charges in Belgium, Portugal and Finland

The external dimension of the internal aviation market

Bilateral agreements inhibit useful merger restructuring
Unfinished business with the US over open skies
Progress towards agreements with the CEEC
The terms of the bilateral agreement with Switzerland

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Chapter Four - Download
Single Market - Maritime


Four policy papers on the future of Community shipping

Liberalisation of international services and cabotage

The impact of the cabotage Regulation and second registers

A regulatory framework for the Community's ports?

Actions to complement the internal maritime market

The 1992 compromise over manning rules
Proposal to introduce wider use of flag state, rather than host state, rules
Response of ministers and MEPs to manning proposals
State aid still common in maritime industries
Community guidelines on state aid for ship operators

Ensuring Member States' use of state aid is fair

Determined actions against illegal Italian subsidies
Aid for public service obligations only under fair conditions
No Community guidelines on state aid to ports
EP demand for guidelines on aid and competition among seaports
Persistent abuses of aid at Italian ports
Aid investigations at Portuguese and French ports
State aid to shipbuilding - on a massive scale
The failure of the OECD Agreement

Restrictive practices and abuses of dominant positions

Landmark Decisions impose fines on liner conferences
The illegality of inland price fixing agreements
Heavy fines imposed on TACA members
Lesser control needed for non-rate fixing liner consortia
Actions against ferry price and marine insurance cartels
Abuses by Stena Sealink of port authority role at Holyhead
Danish government involvement in Rodby port restrictions
The slow process of dismantling labour laws at Italian ports

In search of an external maritime relations policy

The need to replace or revise the two 1986 Regulations
The Commission's 1997 Communication on external relations
Draft consultation procedure unpopular in the Council

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Chapter Five - Download
Single Market - Roads


Liberalisation of international and domestic freight markets

The abolition of quotas for international traffic
Road haulage cabotage and crisis measures
Little use made of cabotage freedom, except in Germany
The disruptive effect of weekend lorry bans
New rules on bans opposed by France, Germany, Italy and Austria
Liberalisation of the passenger transport markets
Limited impact of Regulation on international carriage
Passenger cabotage laws make insignificant impact

Actions to complement the internal road transport market

Community rules on access to the road professions
The role of vehicle taxation and fiscal harmonisation
The first, and illegal, Eurovignette Directive
The revised, and slightly environmental, Eurovignette Directive
Extensive array of technical harmonisation and operational rules
Harmonised rules on weights and dimension of vehicles

Redirection of state aid in the haulage sector

Italian manoeuvres to subsidise haulage industry restructuring
Further procedures and Court cases against Italy
Spain's legitimate restructuring programme, and its illegal aid scheme
Austrian toll relief scheme challenged by Brussels

Antitrust interventions largely routine merger approvals

The Ducros/DHL agreement authorised for three years

External relations give the Commission a tough ride

Significant land transport agreements with CEEC prove elusive
Plan for multilateral accord with CEEC whittled away
The Interbus accord to take over from the Asor Agreement

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Chapter Six - Download
Single Market - Railways


Frustrated attempts to prise open the rail markets

The Commission's 1995 proposals to extend access rights
The Member States sign up to guaranteed access
Support for freight freeways but little practical development

Complementary measures designed to remove barriers

Creating a legal framework without barriers
The 1998 infrastructure package proposals
Hesitations from the EP and Council over the infrastructure package
The Council's December 1999 accord on infrastructure charging
Agreements on licensing and on separation of accounts
Different national systems and progress towards interoperability
The need to extend interoperability to conventional rail systems
Railway financing and the heavy indebtedness of several State companies

State aid - no sign of any cutbacks in near future

Aid for new rail investments and businesses
Financing the UK rail links for the Channel Tunnel
Italy told to recover restructuring aid to rail sector firm

Antitrust actions make headway only in freight sector

Deutsche Bahn's battle with Brussels over a freight rates Decision
Restrictive agreements allowed but with conditions
UIC told to adjust combined transport agreements after three years
Green lights for NDX and ERS agreements after negotiations
The Commission's failure to impose freight successes in passenger sector
The Commission's European Night Services Decision overturned
UIC's Leaflet 130 policy upheld by the Court of Justice
The Channel Tunnel - a special case
Limited application of merger rules to rail sector

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Chapter Seven - Download
Single Market - Inland waterways


Liberalisation measures to open up the waterways market

Removal of barriers on pricing and availability of cargoes
Full liberalisation delayed until January 2000

Complementary actions in the internal waterways market

Technical rules - a prerequisite for fair international competition
Directive to match Mannheim rules to await UN-ECE developments
Community control for national scrapping funds
The Commission's role in administering the scrapping funds
An accelerated scrapping scheme in preparation for liberalisation
The Inland Waterways Fund in place from 1999

Competition policy largely restricted to state aid monitoring

Aid to the German, Dutch and French waterways sector
Dutch barge control centre opposed, but a Belgian venture approved

The external dimension - a stalled agreement with the CEEC

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Chapter Eight - Download
Safety and environment - General


General view on safety in the transport sector

Extension of the working time rules to the transport sector

The general environmental policy framework

The Fifth Environmental Action Programme - Towards Sustainability
Codecision to review the Fifth Environmental Action Programme

Joint meeting of transport and environment ministers

Integration of environmental protection into other Treaty areas

Powerful instruments for implementing environmental policy

The work of the European Environment Agency
Conclusions of the European Environment Agency report
The environmental impact assessment Directive
Strategic impact assessments for plans and programmes
Innovative proposals needed to help with enforcement of laws
The increasing use of the voluntary agreement model

Regulating air quality - assessment and controls

First air quality daughter Directive for SO2 and NOx
Second daughter Directive aimed at benzene and carbon monoxide

The climate change strategy - more words than action

The pre-Kyoto wrangling over burden sharing
The Kyoto agreement for a binding Protocol
Transport and CO2 - developing a Community approach
The Kyoto mechanisms and new targets for CO2 reduction

Fair and efficient pricing - an essential part of transport policy

White paper on fair payment for infrastructure use
The recommended three stage approach to the introduction of fair charging

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Chapter Nine - Download
Safety and environment - Aviation


Aviation safety measures at Community level

Transposition of JAA standards into EU law
Towards a European aviation safety authority
A change of direction over the future EASA?
Cooperation over accidents and incident reporting

Promoting high safety standards for foreign carriers

Negotiations for a ramp checks Directive scuppered

More efficiency needed in air traffic management

The difficulty of transposing Eurocontrol standards into EU law
The Community's future membership of Eurocontrol
Expressions of serious concern over air traffic delays

Ideas for future flight time limitation regulations

The Commission's air transport and environment papers

Noise abatement and control measures

Recertificated Chapter II aircraft ban tempered by US lobbying

Slow efforts to tackle aircraft emissions at EC level

Council defers to ICAO over NOx emissions proposal
Political will but lack of action on kerosene taxation

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Chapter Ten - Download
Safety and environment - Maritime


Vessel certification, and the debate over registers

The role of shipping registers and ideas for the future
Standards for marine equipment from January 1999

Compulsory standards of training for seafarers

STCW Directive updated, but not without criticism from MEPs

Controlling third country vessels through port state control

Port measures to cope with ISM code and for vessel targeting

Specific safety rules for passenger vessels

Safety standards for passenger vessels on domestic routes

Specific rules for safety of bulk carriers

The working time agreement of the Social Partners

The Hazmat Directive to protect the marine environment

Port reception facilities to deal with ship-generated waste

The Commission's quality shipping campaign

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Chapter Eleven - Download
Safety and environment - Inland


Road safety - development of an integrated approach

The Community databank on road traffic accidents
Technical harmonisation for different types of vehicles
The unacceptable human, social and financial cost of road accidents
The 1997-2001 action programme for road safety
The Council and the Parliament demonstrate road safety sense
Roadside safety and environmental checks on HGVs
Community speed limits and blood alcohol limits - not yet

International agreements underpin dangerous goods laws

Group of laws for dangerous goods carried by road
The transport of dangerous goods by rail
The transport of dangerous goods by inland waterways
Mandatory use of safety advisers for dangerous goods
Special rules for transportable pressure equipment

Compromises on working time conditions difficult to find

Failure of the road sector Social Partners to find an agreement
Parliament's exclusion of public transport, and the Council's indecision
Driving time to be monitored with a digital tachograph
A consensus on working time in the rail transport sector
Uncertain future for working time rules in the inland waterways sector

Controlling vehicle emissions and the auto-oil programme

A broader approach to reducing vehicle emissions
Car and van emission standards for 2000 and 2005
Parallel proposals for light commercial vans
Stricter limit values for HGV emissions in 2000 and 2005
Complementary standards on the quality of transport fuels

Reducing CO2 emissions from passengers cars

The 1995 Communication on the reduction of CO2 from cars
Pressure on the European car makers to reach a voluntary agreement
Doubts about the ACEA deal from the EP and environmental groups
Fuel efficiency labelling and monitoring of CO2 emissions

A framework for solving HGV-related environment concerns

Convergence needed for electronic fee collection systems
Austria's special regime for HGV alpine transit
Solutions to the Austrian and Swiss alpine transit problems

Measures to control the recycling of vehicles

Provisions in the end-of-life vehicles Directive

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Chapter Twelve - Download
Economic and social cohesion


The 1999 transport and cohesion Communication

The trans-European transport networks

The TENs Guidelines Decision defining projects of common interest

Drawbacks concerning seaports and intermodality
A first revision of the TENs Guidelines
Loyola de Palacio's intentions for the transport TENs
Defining priority projects - the Christophersen Group
The Essen summit's choice of 14 projects - needing Ecu91bn
Financing the development of the transport networks
Focus on public-private partnerships as a means of raising finance
External aspects of the trans-European networks
The TINA process to define the CEEC networks

Regional policy supported by the Structural Funds

The Community Support Frameworks
Interreg II for promoting cross-border cooperation
A special fund for the four Cohesion States
Assessing the impact of the Community's regional policies
The Agenda 2000 Communication and proposals
New Regulations for financing regional policy in 2000-06
Formal guidelines for future EU grants to transport projects
The growing importance of the Spatial Development Perspective

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Chapter Thirteen - Download


Combined freight transport and intermodality

Common Community rules for combined transport
Little support for the Commission's 1998 CT proposals
Pilot actions for promoting combined transport
A wider strategy to promote intermodality
Progress with the intermodal action programme
The Council's 1999 Resolution on intermodality

The challenges of creating a multimodal passenger network

Towards a European satellite navigation system

Proposals to develop Europe's GNSS2 - Galileo
The Council's instructions for the definition phase

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Chapter Fourteen - Download
Research and demonstration


Euret - the first EC transport research programme

The 1994-98 Fourth RTD Framework Programme

The Brite/Euram programme for development of industrial materials
Transport in the telematics and energy programmes
The transport programme for policy and technology developments
Examples of strategic transport policy R&D schemes
Network optimisation research examples - rail, intermodality, aviation
Network optimisation research examples - urban transport, waterways, road
The failure of the Task Force concept to take off

The Fifth RTD Framework Programme

The Commission's preparatory policy papers and discussions
The Commission's formal proposals for a reduced number of programmes
Council-Parliament dispute over the Fifth FP budget

International aspects - widening cooperation opportunities

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Chapter Fifteen - Download


The pre-accession strategy - three main elements

The transport components of the Phare programme
The Phare programme of cross-border cooperation
Multicountry studies for promoting regional cooperation
Europe Agreements set the framework for cooperation
The transport and environment Structured Dialogues

The internal market and environment - mountains to be climbed

Agenda 2000 - how to manage the enlargement process

The effect of the EU's policies of enlargement on the applicant countries
Setting up the Accession Partnerships
International banks provide the investment support

Monitoring the progress of the enlargement process

Second progress report recommends negotiations with all, except Turkey
The first wave candidates - Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Poland and Estonia
The second wave candidates - Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Latvia
The other candidates - Cyprus, Malta and Turkey

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Chapter Sixteen - Download


Encouraging reform and modernisation in the NIS

The Tacis programme of technical assistance
The regional programme - focused on Traceca
The evolution of the Tacis programme and its evaluation
Strategic policies towards Ukraine and Russia
The Partnership and Cooperation Agreements
First results of Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with Russia

The Euro-Med Partnership - a new impetus for southern neighbours

The Meda Regulation for grants of Ecu3.4bn
Communication on Euro-Med cooperation in transport

EFTA - the European Economic Area and Switzerland

Transposal of EU legislation in the transport area
A new framework, finally, for relations with Switzerland

Relations with the US - significant trade barriers persist

The Commission's annual reports on US barriers to trade

EC Treaty - Selected Articles/Document listings/Glossary


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