EC INFORM

EU Energy Policies towards the 21st Century
by Paul K Lyons

ISBN 0 9524253 2 7 - Published by EC INFORM in June 1998 - 200 A4 pages, 15 chapters,

CONTENTS - pdf
1 - INTRODUCTION - pdf
2 - WHAT IS ENERGY POLICY? - pdf
3 - THE SINGLE MARKET- pdf
3A- THE INTERNAL ELECTRICITY MARKET- pdf
3B- THE INTERNAL GAS MARKET- pdf
3C- THE SINGLE MARKET - COAL, OIL, BIOFUEL - pdf
4 - ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY- pdf
4A- CONTROLLING AIR QUALITY - pdf
4B- CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES - pdf
5 - SECURITY OF SUPPLY - pdf
6 - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COHESION - pdf
7 - NUCLEAR ISSUES - pdf
8 - RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION - pdf
9 - ENLARGEMENT - pdf
10- INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS - pdf
DOCUMENT LISTING - pdf
GLOSSARY- pdf

DETAILED CONTENTS BELOW

This book concludes that, because of the Single Market and the escalation of the EU's environmental laws, very important energy policy developments have taken place in Brussels; and the European Commission's influence over the energy sector will continue to escalate.

The book is crammed full of details about current and future EU legislation and programmes and demonstrates the extent of the Community's responsibilities. These include important functions in controlling the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets; very significant powers over energy industries when it comes to regulating air quality; and a huge influence over the Central and Eastern European countries that wish to join the European Union.

Controversial issues explained in the book include: the CO2/energy tax and the climate change negotiations, implementation of electricity liberalisation, oil platform decommissioning, EU moves to close Chernobyl, the EU-US conflict over Iran/Libya sanctions, Commission and UK action against German and Spanish coal subsidies, excise tax harmonisation, public procurement opportunities in third countries, how internalisation of external costs is influencing policy, energy relations with Russia, the donation of funds to Korea's nuclear centre, future gas security of supply, and the difficulties of enlargement.

The author, Paul Lyons, who has closely monitored energy developments in Brussels for over a decade, provides his own personal assessment on many of these issues.

'EU Energy Policies towards the 21st Century' can be FREELY downloaded chapter by chapter using the links below. This book originally cost £425. The author would be grateful for an email acknowleding any use of the book, whether for personal or business reasons: ec_inform@yahoo.co.uk

Any use of the information in this book must be fully acknowledged and referenced. Copyright law applies

Contents - Download

Chapter One - Download
INTRODUCTION

Chapter Two - Download
WHAT IS ENERGY POLICY?

Introduction

Developing a Community strategy for energy

Detailed statement on energy policy by Council of Ministers
The Commission's white paper an energy policy for the EU
Member States' response to the white paper

New energy policy instruments for the 21st century

Proposal for agreement on common energy objectives
The Energy Consultative Committee for a dialogue with industry
Towards a restructuring of DGXVII's energy programmes
The Energy Framework Programme structure
The Energy Observatory and Carnot programmes
Support for international cooperation through Synergy
Monitoring energy investment in the Member States

Failed attempts to introduce an energy chapter

Commission Opinions for intergovernmental conference
Interventions on energy by Ireland and Italy

Assessment

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Chapter Three - Download
THE SINGLE MARKET

Introduction

A Single Market - but with energy lagging behind

Early background to the internal energy market

Procurement rules including the excluded sectors

Slow transposition and inadequate economic benefits
International aspects of the Utilities Directive
Fraught attempt to adapt the Utilities Directive

Taxation - inducing harmonisation with green overtones

Large number of national exceptions continue
Refinements to original harmonisation Directives
Ambitious proposal to incorporate environmental objectives
Encouraging the use of environmental taxes

Assessment

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Chapter Three A - Download
THE INTERNAL ELECTRICITY MARKET

Introduction

The electricity market Directive - a major achievement

Original proposals for liberalisation considered overly ambitious
The year-long debate over the Single Buyer concept
Final issues resolved under Spanish and Italian Presidencies
MEPs' decision to accept the Common Position
Summary of the electricity Directive's rules
The complex process of implementation
A first look at extra harmonisation requirements

Minor achievements through the use of competition law

Competition threats directly aimed at monopolies
Five cases brought to Court over import/export monopolies
Judgements fail to shed light on internal energy market
Restricting electricity power purchase agreements
DGIV interventions in Belgium and Denmark
EU competition aspects of electricity mergers
Application of Treaty law by national authorities and courts
EFTA Surveillance Authority energy cases

Assessment

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Chapter Three B - Download
THE INTERNAL GAS MARKET

Introduction

Negotiating the gas Directive - in the steps of electricity

Proposal for common rules in the gas market
General support in favour of the Directive
Political agreement reached under Luxembourg Presidency

The internal gas market - details from the Directive

Rules on market access and eligible consumers
Provisions on equality and upstream networks
Authorising derogations for take-or-pay contracts

Limited opportunities for application of competition law

Restricting long-term gas supply agreements
Germany's attempts to break down regional monopolies
The Commission's inspection of gas sector mergers

Assessment

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Chapter Three C - Download
THE SINGLE MARKET - COAL, OIL, BIOFUEL

Introduction

Cutting coal subsidies - a case for Commission perseverance

Decision 93/3632/ECSC and its transition period
A decade of conflict between Brussels and Bonn
Complaints against German sales of anthracite into the UK
Close examination of German mergers and acquisitions
Limited state aid for lignite operations in Germany
Spain faced with social and economic problems
Coal state aid in Portugal, France and Ireland
The UK aims to maintain a competitive coal industry

Enhancing the oil market operation - upstream and downstream

Upstream industry concerns over application of working time rules
Revision of the block exemptions under discussion
Four options proposed for future of block exemptions
Oil market liberalisation in Greece, Spain and Portugal
Discrepancies over aid payments to German refinery
Ownership changes in refinery and distribution sector
Commission approval for developments in UK and France

A catalogue of infringements concerning biofuels

Discriminatory measures in Italy and Belgium
Concerted French attempts to back biofuel development
Commission attacked in Court over failure to act
Commission authorisation for French scheme challenged

Application of competition rules to energy saving schemes

Assessment

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Chapter Four - Download
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Introduction

Towards sustainability - towards a major new agenda

Review pinpoints unwillingness to make progress
Draft Decision to strengthen environmental policy
MEPs seek to strengthen framework programme

The European Environment Agency - a backbone for policy

A widening of the EEA's cooperative network

The regulatory approach - potent new preventative legislation

Proposal for strategic environmental assessment
Finding a consensus with UK and Norway on oil platform decommissioning
Integrated pollution prevention and control
The difficult area of environmental liability

Coercion - EU law enforcement and trade mechanisms

International efforts to improve environmental policies

The voluntary approach - a green conscience for business

Ecolabel, ecomanagement and environmental auditing

Assessment

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Chapter Four A - Download
CONTROLLING AIR QUALITY

Introduction

Regulating air quality - assessment and controls

Details from air quality framework Directive
The first daughter Directive with limit values for SO2, NOx

Reducing the impact of vehicle engine emissions

The Auto-Oil Programme results
New vehicle emission limits for the 21st century
Towards a conciliation procedure on vehicle standards
New standards for light commercial vehicles
Diesel engines in lorries and off-road vehicles

Fuel qualities - a more consistent regulatory approach

Draft Directive on fuel limits for pollutants
Towards a difficult conciliation on fuel quality

Transboundary pollution and the problem of acidification

Commission strategy paper on acidification
New proposals due on large combustion plant
Measures to foster international cooperation
Council restrictions on acidification strategy

Assessment

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Chapter Four B - Download
CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES

Introduction

The first phase - policies for stabilisation by 2000

The first CO2/energy tax proposal
The Commission's second attempt at a climate change tax
A mechanism to monitor CO2 emissions and programme implementation
Revised mechanism for monitoring beyond 2000

Preparations for Kyoto and a legally binding protocol

Berlin mandate granted by First Conference of the Parties
Common and coordinated policies and measures needed
The energy dimension of climate change
The Commission's strategy paper in advance of Kyoto
The Kyoto agreement for a binding Protocol
The Kyoto follow-up process

Energy efficiency - the bedrock of CO2 control policy

Energy efficiency standards and voluntary agreements
The rest of the SAVE legislative programme
The SAVE grant programme of projects and promotion
Six categories of action for SAVE II
Developing a strategy for cogeneration
A new energy efficiency strategy for the 21st century?

Renewable energy sources - energies for the future

The Altener II programme agreed for two years only
Towards a Community strategy for renewables
The white paper on renewable energy sources
A Directive expected on fair access for renewables

Related developments in transport and other policies

Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars
A citizen's network and fair pricing
First Communication on transport and climate change
The control of methane emissions under investigation

Assessment

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Chapter Five - Download
SECURITY OF SUPPLY

Introduction

Stocks and crisis measures - the legacy of the 1970s

Updating the Community rules on oil stocks
Deregulation of peripheral oil crisis rules
Monitoring the state of the refinery markets

Natural gas - the focus for supply concerns of the future

Possible future actions concerning natural gas security
The Council limits short-term action to studies
MEPs concerned about pipeline dependency and renewables

Public service obligations and the grid-based energies

Recognition of general economic interests in Treaty

Assessment

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Chapter Six - Download
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COHESION

Introduction

Trans-European energy networks - economic integration

Details of the TENs Guidelines Decision
Financing the TENs feasibility studies
Other financing instruments for TENs
Sustaining the political impetus on priority projects
Difficulties with France-Spain and Greece-Italy links
The external dimension of energy TENs

Regional development backed by the Structural Funds

Interreg support for cross-border energy links
Rechar support for revitalising coal mining regions

Assessment

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Chapter Seven - Download
NUCLEAR ISSUES

Introduction

Policy framework relies on illustrative nuclear programme

Revision of Euratom proposed by Ireland
The fourth illustrative nuclear programme
Seven main features and challenges for the future
The Opinion of the Economic and Social Committee
The Parliament's failure to agree an Opinion

Security of fuel supply and the role of trade agreements

KLE's challenge to the Euratom Supply Agency \
Uranium imports from the NIS continue to rise
ENU's challenge to Euratom's supply policy
Supply of HEU a particular concern
Negotiating the complex Euratom-US nuclear agreement
Details of the Euratom-US agreement
MEPs' frustration at lack of consultation on the agreement
Other nuclear agreements with Western partners
No formal development in nuclear relations with Russia

Non-proliferation/safeguards preserving Euratom's status

The extent of the Community's safeguards operation
The future challenges for safeguards policy
Efforts to clamp down on nuclear materials smuggling
Commission report on results of anti-smuggling actions
Community contributions to the ISTC in Moscow and KEDO

Nuclear safety always an absolute priority

Basic nuclear safety standards for radiation protection
Additional rules on radioactive shipments
The Community's radioactive waste management strategy
DGXVII's contribution to nuclear safety activities
Promoting the nuclear safety of installations
Nuclear safety a priority for Phare and Tacis
Moscow summit on nuclear safety
The West's persistent efforts to close Chernobyl
Western initiatives in Bulgaria, Slovakia and Lithuania
Developing a more refined strategy towards Eastern Europe

Assessment

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Chapter Eight - Download
RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION

Introduction

The Third RTD Framework Programme and Thermie

Thermie support for targeted projects and dissemination

The Fourth FP closing the gap between R&D and demonstration

The non-nuclear energy R&D programme
Examples from the Joule part of the energy programme
The non-nuclear energy demonstration programme
The nuclear fusion and fission programmes
The Fourth FP supplement and task forces
The role of the Joint Research Council

The Fifth Programme better targeting, improved transparency

Proposal to reduce thematic programmes to three
The Fifth FP budget and management proposals
The EP's call for over one hundred amendments
Budget cutbacks agreed by the Member States
The Fifth Framework Programme approach to fusion

Dwindling funds for technical coal R&D programme

International aspects widening cooperation opportunities
Cooperation with and support for the CEEC and NIS

Assessment

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Chapter Nine - Download
ENLARGEMENT

Introduction

The pre-accession strategy - three main elements

Europe Agreements set the framework for cooperation
The energy and environment Structured Dialogues

The internal market and environment - mountains to be climbed

Difficulties of approximation in energy
The huge burden of environmental laws

Agenda 2000 how to manage the enlargement process

The impact of enlargement on CEEC energy and environment
The impact of enlargement on EU energy policies
Setting up the Accession Partnerships
International banks provide the investment support

Opinions on CEEC accession five ready, five not ready

Hungary - positive progress in the energy sector
Poland - the largest of the applicant countries
Estonia - the only Baltic state ready to start negotiations
Czech Republic - energy policy in line with the EU
Slovenia - a country with diversified energy sources
Slovakia - failure to meet political criteria
Romania - no clear overall energy policy
Latvia - concerns over economic criteria
Lithuania - closure of Ignalina necessary
Bulgaria - insufficient progress on transposition of the acquis

Assessment

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Chapter Ten - Download
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

Introduction

Encouraging reform and modernisation in the NIS

Energy sector projects in the national programmes
The regional facilities programmes
Tacis evolution and evaluation
The Partnership and Cooperation Agreements
Strategic action plans for Russia and Ukraine

The Energy Charter Treaty - exploiting East-West synergies

Extension of the Treaty to the pre-investment phase

The Euro-Med Partnership - a new impetus for southern neighbours

Meda and the Euro-Med Agreements
The energy sector to play a pivotal role
The tasks of the Euro-Mediterranean Energy Forum

US relations - procurement, environment and investment issues

EU reaction to the d'Amato act

Gulf Cooperation Council - oil and gas market concerns

Energy cooperation strategies for Asia and Latin America

Priority areas for energy cooperation in Asia
The Alure programme for energy projects in Latin America

Assessment

DOCUMENT LISTINGS - Download

GLOSSARY - Download

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